Wednesday, February 14, 2007

HCC15 dR

1953 Imperial

The Imperial, by Chrysler, Custom Imperial. Long live the king.

Words & photography by David Traver Adolphus

The long story of Chrysler’s sometime-brand Imperial is as long and complicated as that of any king and empire. From its meteoric rise to the very pinnacle of American automotive supremacy in 1926, through highs and lows culminating in the ignominious exile of 1994, Imperial’s saga traces the middle of the century of the car as no other.

Over the years, the Imperial badge has had a changing relationship to the Chrysler name. It was introduced as a Chrysler trim level, and quickly became a distinct line comprised of the finest automobiles, more than capable of competing with marques such as Packard, Duesenberg and Cadillac. After the Second World War, it was generally referred to as “Imperial, by Chrysler,” up until 1955 when it became a separate product line. By 1971, it had once again returned to its roots as a Chrysler trim level, until the name was retired amidst the company’s declining financial health in 1975. The name was revived again for a small car from 1981 through 1983, and again for 1990 through 1994, but the era of great Imperials had long since come to a close.

William Percy Chrysler’s saga itself traces more than the development of the modern automobile; it traces the American Dream. From his early life as a laborer, he worked his way up through the auto industry to become the last person to found a major independent automaker, at least one that lasted to the end of the 20th century.

This journey into automobile history began at General Motors, where a nine-year tenure under GM’s challenging president, William C. Durant, ended in 1920 with a $10 million buyout of W. P. Chrysler’s stock, providing him ample seed money to peruse his ambitions. After complicated dealings with Willys in the early 1920s, Chrysler assumed control of the failing Maxwell Motor Company, which had recently merged with Chalmers. Around 1922 he lost to Durant a bid to assume some of Willys assets, and teamed with former Willys and Studebaker engineers Fred Zeder, Owen Skelton and Carl Breer to develop a new automobile, the Chrysler, at the former Chalmers plant in Detroit. Introduced at the New York Auto Show in January of 1924, the Chrysler Model B-70 was powered by a strong L-head inline six, and featured a full range of body styles, including a fully enclosed, five-passenger Crown Imperial sedan.

Chrysler cars quickly developed a reputation as sophisticated, high-quality, high-performance automobiles at reasonable prices, and the Imperial gained its own platform in 1926. By 1927, it was well on its way to becoming a discrete model line, with a 288.6 cubic inch engine and wheelbases up to 133 inches available by special order.

Coachbuilders began to take advantage of the Imperial running gear and partway through 1928, a line of factory semi-coachbuilt models were introduced, with bodies by Dietrich, LeBaron and Locke on a 136-inch wheelbase, and an optional 309.3 cubic inch L-head inline-six. Locke-bodied customs continued into the Depression.

As with all the automakers, the economic realities of the 1930s hit Chrysler hard. Production of long-wheelbase Imperials dropped from a high of over 2,000 to approximately 151 in 1933. But that fate was staved off for the first few years of the Depression by the all-new, all-steel 1931 Imperials. An inline-eight cylinder engine displacing 384 cubic inches made 125 horsepower available, and a rakish, modern, swept back design closely resembled that of competitors Cord and Auburn. Wheelbases up to 145 inches provided a canvas on which the world’s finest coachbuilder’s expressed their art, and ensured they would continue to be some of the most sought-after luxury cars on the market, at least by those who could still afford them.

But the inevitable could not be delayed, and despite further evolution of the line, resulting in some of the most expressive and desirable true American Classics ever built, it was time for a change. As ever, Imperial would lead the way in styling and technology.

Jeff Koch covered the evolution of 1934’s revolutionary Airflow in detail last month (1937 Imperial Airflow HCC 14), so we will only say that the brave, failed experiment in creating a truly modern car lasted only three years (while Airflows were sold in 1937, they were no longer badged as Imperials). W. P. Chrysler’s decision to force the design on an unwilling company and public, while visionary, was terribly out of step with the conservative buying tastes of a public whose confidence had been rocked to its core by the depression. Custom Imperial Airflows, while unpopular, were certainly among the very best, most luxurious and technologically advanced cars on the planet.

Nevertheless, near universal scorn in the marketplace dictated that a new design direction be adopted, or perhaps an old one. The sudden loss of the Airflow platform seems to have thrown Chrysler design into disarray, and pre-War Imperials abruptly lost their grandeur and distinction, coming to resemble lesser Chrysler Royals, and later, New Yorkers. A brief run of majestic Crown Imperial limousines and Newport dual-cowl phaetons was quickly ended by the war.

The first post-war 1946 cars were continuations of the pre-war models, a lineage which now dated back to the 1938 Royal. With Walter P. Chrysler’s death in 1940, the Imperial had lost one of its staunchest backers, and the Airflow scare relegated it to limousine duty for a decade. A Fluid-Drive semi-automatic transmission, introduced in the 1939 Custom Imperial, was standard in the sole Crown Imperial model. A new model would not appear until March of 1949.

While the new 1949 Imperial was unquestionably a luxury car, it was now just as unquestionably even more closely related to the Chrysler New Yorker. Former Chrysler designer Ray Dietrich, now working independently, applied a fantastic custom-style interior to a limited run of 50 shorter (131.5-inch wheelbase) sedans. While not a major force in the market, it foreshadowed Imperials return to the realm of the luxury sedan.

On May 1st, 1950, a new Imperial sedan based on the all-new New Yorker platform debuted. It was quite clearly a car in which to be seen, as it actually had more glass than the New Yorker which it clearly resembled. The Imperial’s exterior was otherwise quite restrained, with modest badging and very minimal brightwork. Subtlety was the name of the game, and Chrysler sold over 10,000 sedans which, with 415 Crown Imperials, made 1950 the best year for Imperial sales since the 1930s.

The dramatic improvement in sales meant that Chrysler could justify a full lineup for 1951. Six different models were available, all motivated by the stunning new FirePower engine, Chrysler’s 331.1 cubic-inch, 180hp V-8 with hemispherical combustion chambers. As it had during the late 1920s, Imperials could once again claim to be America’s most powerful cars. Together with optional power steering and brakes, (disc brakes were standard on Crown Imperial limousines) and Fluid-Torque semi-automatic transmissions, they were once again the finest cars available. Little changed for 1952 and over 27,000 were built during those two years. 1953 Imperials received a minor facelift that made them look less like New Yorkers, including the enormous and distinctive eagle hood ornament. For unknown reasons, the company cut back Imperial production dramatically that year, and just over 9,000 of all variants were sold. In June of the year, the fully automatic PowerFlite transmission completed testing and was gradually rolled out as the new standard powertrain, although its official introduction was in the 1954 models. Those 1954s began an entirely new era, as the Virgil Exner-styled joined an all-new Chrysler lineup as their own separate make, and returned the car to the very peak of the luxury car field, a position it would occupy until the very end of the 1960s.

Michael Mauss acquired his 1953 Imperial from Massachusetts in 1999. The metallic Niagara Blue car is amazingly original, having received only some chrome replating and minor repair to the passenger side to repair a crease. Michael describes the exterior as “50-75% original,” and we would say he is being conservative. The pleated blue mohair and leather interior is complimented by subtle wood inlay in the doors, and a two-tone painted metal dash. The rear seat is as spacious and inviting as any living room, with canted footrests and an elegant chromed bar along the back of the front seat to assist egress.

With just over 60,000 miles recorded, the hemi fires up immediately on a warm summer evening, idling quietly and smoothly. A slight dip into the throttle reveals a substantial rumble, a surprisingly muscular sound for such a large, formal car. Mauss believes the engine has never been rebuilt, and we have no reason to doubt him.

The high front bench seat is well positioned, although the original wool is showing slight wear and the seat has softened with time. Shifting is accomplished via the Fluid-Torque Chrysler M-6 two-speed manual transmission with electric overdrive, coupled to a torque converter. When starting out, one depresses a traditional clutch pedal and shifts using a steering column-mounted lever with an “R-L-N-D” pattern. “L” is low range, with Low and Low Overdrive gearing, and “D” is high, with High and High Overdrive. The clutch is also used when changing from low to high range, although thanks to the torque converter, it isn’t needed when coming to a stop. The 312-lbs.ft. of torque available at 2,000 rpm mean that Low range is only needed for steep takeoffs or heavy loads.

It is all far less complicated than it sounds. To get under way, we shift as in any other column-shifter car, putting us into High. Acceleration of the 5,000+ pound car is really quite brisk (in 1953, Speed Age hustled an Imperial to 60 mph in a terrific 12.6 seconds), even though the torque converter means that only a reported 88 horsepower is making it to the ground. At 25 mph, we take our foot gently off the gas for a moment and the overdrive almost imperceptibly kicks in with a gentle surge. Contemporary reports from De Soto and other Chrysler owners describe a distinct “clunk,” but that would have been entirely inappropriate in a car where a chauffeur often conveyed the passengers.

The Imperial is nothing if not relaxed at speed. Flooring the accelerator will deactivate the overdrive, but the car’s manners at all speeds are impeccable. Chrysler engineers went to great lengths to make the steering as relaxed as the rest of the car and the Vacu-Ease steering is as relaxed as can be. No effort whatsoever is required to move the wheel to any degree, and only the motion of the car as it weaves gently down the road informs us that it is connected to anything at all. We are told that with a little practice, a straight line can be steered, but it does not come naturally.

A set of curves encourages one to slow the car down, as the enormous greenhouse puts the center of gravity very high, resulting in alarming lean. Whitewall Dayton radials, entirely appropriate for a regularly driven car, go a long way toward making sharp maneuvering possible, but the car is clearly not happy doing it. Braking is initially frightening, but excellent reserves of stopping power from the large 12-inch power drum brakes are found with strong applications of the pedal, and a pump or two firms them up nicely.

Heading off into the gentle sunset, we wonder how cars such as this ever went out of style. While it is deeply formal, it is also completely practical and eminently suited for endless trips through America. Even today, among monstrous SUVs, the Imperial is an appropriate car that conveys you through the world with ease. Perhaps Chrysler’s new renaissance will once again result in Imperials that are truly the standard of the world.

Club Scene:

Online Imperial Club

Dues: Free; Membership: 600

Walter P. Chrysler Club, Inc.

Box 3504
Kalamazoo, Michigan 49003-3504

Dues: $30/year; Membership: 5,000

Owner’s View:

Michael Mauss of northern Vermont first became aware of his 1953 Imperial in 1995, when the second owner earned his Hemmings Motor News Photographer cap with a story of how he acquired it from his butcher, the car’s owner for its first 42 years. The car, which evokes memories of his childhood family car, sits next to a beautiful red Pontiac Deluxe Chieftain convertible, which is “almost there.” In the barn next door, a 1941 Lincoln Continental and 1930 Franklin are in various stages of restoration.

“The Imperial is an historical artifact which tells us much about the 1950s, a period of confidence among Americans in our position in the world,” says the former history professor, now a farmer. “It was a far more secure time than today with global marketplace outsourcing, and terrorism.

“I think that the understated body design has held up better than some of the more flamboyant designs of the 1950s, and it is mechanically overbuilt and thoroughly reliable.”

While Michael does drive it regularly though the warmer months and accumulates over 1,000 miles a year in the Imperial, his intention is to keep it in the condition in which it is found today. “I intend to preserve it as an excellent original,” he says. “It is dignified, with enough brightwork to set it off, but not the excess which one finds in late ‘50s cars.”

What to Pay:

Low $3,000

Medium $5,000

High $10,000


All-day cruising comfort

A time when “Chrysler” and “Quality” meant the same thing

Hemi power


Explaining the name

Reproduction parts? Ha!

Handling is good for a huge 1950s car, but not that good

1953 Chrysler Custom Imperial


Base Price $4,401.50

Options on dR car Fluid-Torque drive, power steering, radio, heater, electric window lifts

Price as tested $5,004.00


Type 90° overhead valve V-8; hemispherical combustion chambers, horizontal slot, aluminum alloy pistons; full-length water jackets;, integrally cast block and crankcase; dropforged crankshaft

Displacement 331.1 cubic inches

Bore X Stroke 3.8125 x 3.625 inches

Compression ratio 7.50:1

Horsepower @ rpm 180 @ 4,000

Torque @ rpm 312-lbs.ft. @ 2,000

Valvetrain 53° inclined, lateral in-head, silicon-chromium steel valves, 1.8125-inch intake valve head, 1.5-inch exhaust, hydraulic tappets

Main bearings Five

Fuel system Dual throat downdraft Carter WCD-992-S carburetor, Carter M-840-S diaphragm fuel pump, integral automatic choke, water-jacketed throttle body

Ignition system Breaker-point, automatic advance

Lubrication system Gear driven, rotary full-pressure

Electrical system 6 volts, 50 amps

Exhaust system Dual exhaust


Type Chrysler M6 Fluid-Torque four-speed semi-automatic, high & low range

Ratios: 1st 3.57:1

2nd 2.04:1

3rd 1.75:1

4th 1.00:1

Reverse 3.99:1


Type Semi-floating hypoid axle

Ratio 3.54:1


Type Worm and roller

Ratio 20.4:1

Turns, lock-to-lock 3.5

Turning circle 44.66 feet


Type Four-wheel power-assisted Vacu-Ease hydraulic, internal expanding

Front 12-inch double-cylinder drum

Rear 12-inch single-cylinder drum


Construction Welded all-steel body, double channel, fully boxed steel perimeter frame

Body Style Four-door, six-passenger sedan

Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive


Front Upper & lower control arms, coil springs, Oriflow hydraulic shocks, anti-sway bar,

Rear Barrel-type live axle, longitudinal 7-leaf 2.5-inch springs, Oriflow hydraulic shocks, anti-sway bar


Wheels Drop center, safety rim steel disc

Front/rear 15 x 6 inches

Tires Dayton TB radial

Front/rear 15 x 8.2 inches


Wheelbase 131.5 inches

Overall length 219 inches

Overall width 76.75 inches

Overall height 63 inches

Front track 57.125 inches

Rear track 58.5625 inches

Shipping weight 5,060 pounds


Crankcase 5 quarts

Cooling system 26 quarts

Fuel tank 20 gallons

Transmission 3 pints


Bhp per c.i.d. 0.54

Weight per bhp 28.1 pounds

Weight per c.i.d. 15.28 pounds


    1. 12.6 seconds

¼ mile ET est. 19.6 seconds @ 78 mph

Top speed 105 mph

Fuel mileage 13.4 mpg


1953 Imperial 9,018

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